- Context, Approach and Objectives
While Tanzania is well endowed with water resources, it faces increased pressure from climate variability, population growth and economic development. To address water security issues, the International Water Stewardship Programme (IWaSP) in Tanzania engages with the public and private sectors and civil society to create partnerships through which water resources governance and service delivery is improved. Partnerships focus on water resources management and river restoration, and aim to benefit more than 1 million people through improved water availability and quality by 2018.
Sector/ thematic area
Mlalakua River Restoration Project
River Basin Management, River Restoration, Waste Management
Sustainable Water Resources Management in The Upper Ruvuma River
River Basin Management, Water Quality, Water-use Efficiency
2014 to 2018
Tanzania: Kilimanjaro Water Stewardship Platform (KWSP
Water stewardship standards, water use and efficiency, catchment management and governance
Sustainable Water Management in Usa River (SUWAMA)
Good water governance and subcatchement conservation, water use efficiency and sustainable farming practices, improving water quality and water supply
Partnership for Sustainable Hydropower in the Kiwira Catchment
Good water governance, catchment conservation and management, inclusive hydropower set-up
Maji SASA! Water stewardship action for smallholders and SMEs in Africa
Water stewardship standards, water risks in supply chains, soil water management, capacity building
Currently five partnerships operate in the agricultural and beverage sectors, while two have been recently completed:
To address the region’s water stress, the Pangani Basin Water Office, 2030 Water Resources Group Tanzania Partnership, International Water Stewardship Programme (IWaSP) and Tanzania Horticulture Association convened a wide range of public, private and civil society stakeholders to develop the Kilimanjaro Water Stewardship Platform (KWSP). In order to promote water stewardship standards, KWSP is helping to: raise corporate awareness of the benefits of adopting standards; promote the dissemination of water data to enhance management options; and support effective water stewardship in key value chains and amongst out-growers. Major local private sector water users have recognized that managing water efficiently within their own operations is not enough. Please find more information on the partnership here.
Based on considerations and key findings of the Kilimanjaro Water Stewardship Platform, the Pangani basin office in cooperation with IWaSP initiated the Sustainable Water Management Partnership (SUWAMA) to address water challenges in the Usa River sub-catchment (Pangani basin). The partnership is organized under three thematic working areas: good governance, water-use efficiency, and water quality and supply. The partnership has encouraged investments from the private sector and engagement of the civil society in conservation activities. Please find more information on the partnership here.
The partnership for Sustainable Hydropower in the Kiwira Catchment aims at balancing water uses and needs of current and future water users in the Kiwira catchment to guarantee an equitable and sustainable water allocation while fostering socio-economic development by promoting more inclusive approaches of power production and supply. The private partners, namely Kiwira Energy Ltd and Ensol Tanzania, are in the planning and designing process of several small hydropower plants, which will make an important contribution to sustainable energy production in the region. IWaSP supports the Lake Nyasa Basin Water Board (LNBWB) in setting up and leading stakeholder engagement processes to balance the diverse interests related to the usage of water resources in the catchment. Please find more information on the partnership here.
The Maji SASA! (Swahili for Water NOW!) Water stewardship action for smallholders and SMEs in Africa initiative builds on earlier work to implement the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) Standard at the Diageo/Serengeti Brewery in Moshi, Tanzania. Like many companies, Serengeti Breweries Limited (SBL) relies on medium and small-scale agricultural producers in local supply chains for the raw materials essential for business operations. As a requirement of the AWS standard, SBL were required to understand and act on the water related challenges facing its stakeholders, and to assess the water risks associated with its primary inputs. On behalf of IWaSP, Water Witness International and Shahidi wa Maji together with the affected farmers, SBL, different research institutes and service providers have developed an action plan through which some 400 farmers have directly benefited from trainings and activities to tackle water-related risks. Thus, the partnership has not only increased farmers' resilience, but will further prevent SBL from supply shortages. Please find more information on the partnership here.
IWaSP successfully withdrew from the following partnerships with key activities now continuing without further IWaSP support:
The Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Upper Ruvuma River partnership has improved water security for stakeholders in the Ruvuma Basin. The partnership supported the creation of a water user association (WUA) to serve as a dialogue platform for all stakeholders. In addition, it has generated more detailed information on the basin through studies on water availability and water abstraction. Partnership members included IWaSP, Olam–Aviv, civil society representatives and the Ruvuma Basin Water Board. Today, the created WUA is still an active member of the WUA partnership facilitated by IWaSP. This partnership fosters a more active exchange between different WUAs at the country level.
The Mlalakua River Restoration Project has restored the Mlalakua River in Dar es Salaam by raising awareness on waste management and improved sanitation, by supporting professional clean-ups conducted by the local municipality and communities, and ensuring that guidelines on environmental law are enforced by public sector stakeholders. This partnership has brought together residents, public authorities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the private sector, including the local Coca- Cola bottling plant. IWaSP has facilitated the process of partnership coordination, development, and collective action to engage all partners in the restoration of the river and to prevent further pollution of the river. This partnership was co-financed by The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation. A recent investigation of IWaSP in Mlalakua has shown that the partnership approach has provoked a sustainable impact. Organizational structures set-up during the partnership are still in place and have prevented further river pollution.
- Achievements to Date
From 2014 to 2018, IWaSP partnerships in Tanzania have reached more than 58,397 direct beneficiaries and more than 1,249,104 indirect beneficiaries. Within the partnerships 238,000 EUR were contributed by the private sector for catchment conversation. Furthermore, civil society engaged in related activities by committing work force worth more than 45,000 EUR and carrying out over 200 local events to raise awareness on water issues. IWaSP is also supporting the uptake of the Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) Standard by companies.
- Challenges and Outlook
A main challenge of water resources management in Tanzania points to the limited enforcement of existing regulations. The capacity of the public sector to implement management plans and tools remains weak due to a lack of financial means that restraints resource monitoring and conservation practices. Therefore, more and more importance is given to partnerships and stakeholder engagement within integrated water resources management (IWRM) plans, which are developed by each of the nine basins water boards of Tanzania. Partnerships, such as those supported by IWaSP, are a means to stimulate private and civil society sector engagement in water resources conservation and management, which not only eases the pressure on the public sector but also supports the basin offices in enforcing formal regulations.
IWaSP Tanzania is currently developing a new partnership that looks at water security in and around industrial zones in collaboration with the Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA). As the country embarks on industrialization through a strategy of promoting Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and Export Processing Zones (EPZ), there is an increasing need to ensure these SEZ/EPZ are attractive to investors and investments are water secure. In this context the partnership will look at (a) creating a conducive regulatory environment, (b) ensure sufficient water resources are available to SEZ/EPZ (quantity and quality) now and in future as well as (c) looking into the quality of industrial effluent that is discharged from zones / individual industries into municipal treatment systems and/or the environment.
- Country Set-up
In Tanzania, IWaSP is anchored in the bilateral Supporting the Development of the Water Sector (SWSD) Programme in Tanzania, a joint programme of the German and Tanzanian governments, implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.
IWaSP partners in Tanzania include the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, the National Environment Management Council (NEMC), the Pangani Basin Water Board, the Lake Nyasa Basin Water Board, the Wami Ruvu Basin Water Board (WRBWB), the Lake Rukwa Basin Water Board, Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA).
IWaSP is an international water security programme which combines global best practices in water stewardship with local know-how. Currently active in nine countries, the seven-year programme (2013-2019) facilitates partnerships between the public sector, the private sector and civil society to address shared water risks, while improving stakeholders’ use and management of water and building their capacity to develop their own solutions. GIZ manages IWaSP on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the UK Department for International Development (DfID).
- Further Information on Tanzania’s Water Resources
While Tanzania has extensive water resources, the availability of water varies considerably geographically and seasonally. Economic and population growth have resulted in demands for water exceeding what is available. Pollution of water sources from domestic and industrial waste has also increased. In the coastal areas of Tanzania, saline intrusion is a concern for coastal aquifers with the demand for water driving over abstraction. Inland deforestation and the degradation of wetlands heavily impact water flow in rivers. Inadequate management of water resources contributes to water shortages, which can cause conflict between water users. At the same time, access to water and sanitation continues to be a challenge with low coverage and high water losses.
Mining, agriculture and power production are among the primary industries in Tanzania and depend heavily on water resources. With an ever-growing population and economy, and with the effects of climate change becoming increasingly apparent, water concerns are expected to worsen over the coming years. Sustainable management of water resources is a major challenge which requires the combined efforts of the private sector, the government and communities.
The 2002 National Water Policy, the 2009 Water Act and the 2006 Water Sector Development Programme (WSDP) provide the legal framework for water supply and water resources management in Tanzania.
- Contact Information
Private sector engagement: Kiliflora Ltd. contributed thousands of tree seedlings planted in high risk areas for conversation of water sources.
Water users in the Kikuletwa catchment now benefit from improved water security through the enforcement of good water governance principles in the SUWAMA partnership.
Over 400 farmers near Moshi benefited from trainings on agricultural conservation technics and insurance strategies to minimize water risks in their production chain.
IWaSP paves the way for sustainable hydropower production in the Kiwira catchment.
IWaSP-Tanzania has supported companies like Olam and Serengeti Breweries Limited (SBL) in getting certified by AWS.