Tanzania: Sustainable Water Management in Usa River (SUWAMA)

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Pangani Basin Water Board (PBWB), Upper Kikuletwa Water User Association, Tanzania Horticulture Association, Kiliflora Limited

The Pangani Basin is a trans-boundary basin shared by Tanzania and Kenya, which covers 56,300 km2 where 95% of this area lies in Tanzania.
SUWAMA Usa River is located in the Kikuletwa (13,260km2) catchment, one of the four catchment of the Pangani Basin.
Located north-east of the Pangani Basin, the Usa River subcatchment is part of the Upper Kikuletwa catchment area, which falls under the Upper Kikuletwa Water User Association (UWAMAKIJU).
The Pangani River Basin is water stressed. Water flows in the basin are reduced by climate change and catchment degradation, while demand is increasing due to population and economic growth, including land-use change. The scale and complexity of water-related challenges means that individual action, while important, often remains limited in its effectiveness.
To ensure coordinated action, the Pangani Basin Water Board works closely with the local government, community organisations and businesses to address water-related challenges in the basin. This involves the implementation of the Integrated Water Resources Management plans that map sustainable initiatives by various actors that deliver water security in the basin.
Within the scope of this partnership, IWaSP is working closely with the Pangani Basin Water Board to implement its IWRM plans, with a focus on the Usa-River sub-catchment.
Approach and Objectives
In February 2016, the Pangani Basin Water Board (PBWB), the Upper Kikuletwa Water User Association (WUA), the Tanzanian Horticulture
Association (TAHA), Kiliflora Limited and IWaSP met to address water challenges in the Usa River sub-catchment. During this meeting, main
water challenges and their possible solutions were identified and discussed.
During consultative meetings from October to November 2016, the Pangani Basin community development officer and the WUA
chairman identified 11 villages in the Usa River to be included in the partnership project. Villages selected one woman and one man to
represent them, based on criteria jointly agreed during these meetings, such as active participation in water conservation activities, public
acceptance, self-motivation and availability for partnership meetings.
To improve water security in the sub-catchment, all partners intend to work together with the objective to:
  • Join forces to address challenges in water use and management
  • Collaborate with related institutions (different departments/sectors, levels)
  • Reduce the risk of water scarcity and quality in the long term, through the implementation of mitigation measures/training/awareness/education


To address the identified water challenges in the Usa River subcatchment, the partnership is organised under three thematic working areas: good governance, water-use efficiency, and water quality and supply.
The three working areas will address water-use conflicts through community awareness and collective activities around rights and obligations related to water and the environment, water-use efficiency, and waste water management and supply, addressing the challenges related to the lack of understanding of water issues by the communities.
The good water governance working area addresses the capacity limitation of public authorities, lack of enforcement and collaboration between authorities. To strengthen the capacity of the PBWB, the partnership supports: updating water flow studies, socio-economic studies to identify water user groups and factors that have impact on water allocation, review of the existing water rights in light of the water availability and future water use trends in the catchment area. PBWB and the WUA will benefit from training and capacity development programmes based on specific needs. To strengthen the capacity of the WUA, the partners will contribute to the development of by-laws, the formulation and strengthening of existing catchment committees and plans, and the development of community awareness programmes and training. Good governance will also be addressed through the harmonisation and enforcement of laws and regulations.
The water-use efficiency and sustainable farming practices working area addresses the challenges identified related to agricultural practices, including change of crop type, misuse of water and water scarcity. (Champions from exemplary villages will be a central part in awareness activities.) It will include training and technical support on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). This includes an assessment of farming practices to define priorities, awareness raising on waterefficient practices, and training on water efficiency for farmers. Partners will also explore, support and implement technical solutions for water efficient irrigation.
The working area improving water quality and water supply targets issues of water supply through the training and registration of water utilities, with a special focus on operation and maintenance, and through reinforcing the water monitoring and allocation systems. Regarding water quality, the partnership supports activities related to waste water management. Partners will also ensure the protection of water sources, including  demarcation of protected zones, and soil conservation through tree planting activities, complemented by community awareness campaigns.
All proposed activities will be guided by a study of the subcatchment area (socio-economic, perceptions and water-use study). The proposed activities can be adapted further during the implementation phase to increase impact.
Country Set-up
In Tanzania, IWaSP is anchored in the GIZ bilateral water programme Support to the Development of the Water Sector in Tanzania (SDWS), a joint programme of the German and Tanzanian governments, implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.
IWaSP public sector partners in Tanzania include the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MoWI), the National Environment Management Council (NEMC), the Dialogue Forum on Climate Change Adaptation, the Wami Ruvu, Ruvuma, and Pangani Basin Water Boards (BWBs), the Kinondoni Municipal Council (KMC), the Upper Ruvuma and Upper Kikuletwa Water User Associations (WUAs). 
IWaSP is an international water security programme which combines global best practices in water stewardship with local knowhow. The programme facilitates partnerships between the public sector, the private sector and civil society to address shared water risks, while improving stakeholders’ use and management of water and building their capacity to develop their own solutions. GIZ manages IWaSP on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the UK Department for International Development (DfID).
Contact Information

Fridtjof Behnsen
IWaSP country coordinator in Tanzania